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China Case Study

In China, the Partnership will examine the nexus of aquaculture expansion to increase seafood provision and carbon sequestration to conserve coastal biodiversity.

Overview Q4 ’23 Update Q1 ’24 Update

Developing aquaculture for food, climate mitigation and biodiversity

Background

Service categoryServicePotential species providing service
ProvisioningAugment wild fisheries catchesBivalves, Fish, Algae
RegulatingCarbon sequestrationBivalves, Algae
Acidification regulationAlgae
Coastal protectionBivalves, Fish, Algae
Nutrient removalBivalves, Algae
Improve water clarityBivalves, Algae
Habitat and supportingProvision of artificial habitatBivalves, Fish, Algae
CulturalLivelihoodsBivalves, Fish, Algae, Crustacea
TourismBivalves, Fish, Algae, Crustacea
(Zhang et al., 2017) Total production of coastal macroalgae and shellfish mariculture in China for 2005-2016 (10 4 tons)
  • China’s developing mariculture has made significant contributions to ensuring food security since 1949 (Yu & Han, 2020).
  • In 2012, China’s mariculture output accounted for more than 70% of the world’s total output, making a considerable contribution to world food security. (Campbell & Pauly, 2013)
  • To ensure food security in mariculture, China has put forward the “Blue Granary” strategy, which aims to improve the output and quality of marine aquatic products while maintaining the protection of the marine ecological environment. (Han & Li, 2015; Yu & Han, 2020)
Temporal changes of different aquaculture seaweed productions and farming areas in China between 1983 and 2015 (Zheng et al., 2019)

The production of molluscs from 2006–2015 in China

Data source: Mao et al., 2019
  • Shandong (Geographically called Subei, north Jiangsu) and Fujian province are largest seaweed and bivalve producers
  • These mariculture production may be valuable for the Solving-FCB project

Percentage of total production in typical mariculture systems (a), and the proportion of yield in typical mariculture systems in coastal provinces of China in 2019 (b) (Zhang et.al. 2022)

Purpose of the study

Answering the question: Whether seaweed & shellfish cultivation could help Solving-FCB ? If so, how?

  • Target 1: Quantify the expansion potential of marine seaweed and bivalves cultivation (Modelling based)
  • Target 2: Accounting the maximum potential of carbon naturalization by seaweed and bivalves cultivation (Modelling based)
  • Target 3: Validating the habitat provision services provided by seaweed and bivalves cultivation (including their infrastructures) (Survey and sampling based)
  • Target 4: Quantify the impact of climate change on seaweed cultivation production/ecosystem service potential (Modelling based).

Target 1

Quantify the expansion potential of marine seaweed and bivalves cultivation

  • Where are these suitable areas?
  • How they are distributed?

Target 1 – Feasibility

  • Quantify the expansion potential of marine seaweed and bivalves cultivation
    • Expected results:
      • Marine environment suitability map for seaweed & bivalve cultivation (in China);
    • Method:
      • Species Distribution modelling (Oyinloala, 2018, 2022)
    • Data sources:
      • Public sources (e.g. OBIS, GBIF, GMED, Bio-oracle database)

Target 2

Accounting the maximum potential of carbon naturalization by seaweed and bivalves cultivation

What’s the maximum carbon neutralization potential by seaweed farming? And for “charismatic carbon”?

Target 2 – Feasibility

  • Accounting the maximum potential of carbon neutralization and acidification treatment by seaweed and bivalves cultivation
    • Expected results:
      • Potential production (carbon reservation) map for seaweed and bivalves cultivation.
    • Method:
      • Integrated cultivation suitability (e.g. species distribution modelling in target 1) and biophysical production modelling.
    • Data sources:
      • Public databases (marine environmental data), publications (farming species growth data)

Target 3

Validating the habitat provision services provided by seaweed and bivalves cultivation (including their infrastructures)

Can we observe the habitat provision service and quantify it through scientific approaches?


  • Validating the habitat provision services provided by seaweed and bivalves cultivation (including their infrastructures)
    • Expected results:
      • Survey results for the biodiversity consequences by marine seaweed and bivalves cultivation.
    • Method:
      • Seasonal field survey by eDNA in North Jiangsu Province and Xiapu, Fujian Province, China, both sites represent largest seaweed cultivation production in China

Xiapu, Fujian Province

North Jiangsu Province

Target 4

Quantify the impact of climate change on seaweed cultivation production / ecosystem service potential.

How would climate change affect the potential of seaweed and bivalves cultivation for both production and ecosystem service purpose?

Target 4 – Feasibility

  • Quantify the impact of climate change on seaweed cultivation production / ecosystem service potential.
    • Expected results
      • Potential seaweed production output (carbon reservation) map for seaweed/shellfish cultivation under climate change.
    • Method:
      • Combine all models established in target 1-2;
    • Data sources:
      • Public sources (cmip data for future climate)

Team

Ling Cao

Shanghai Jiaotong University

Yue Liu

Shanghai Jiaotong University