The Netherlands

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Netherlands Case Study

In The Netherlands, the Partnership aims to explore nexus-informed pathways towards circular and ‘nature inclusive’ food systems.


Case Study Objectives

  • Environmental System Analysis (ESA) of the WUR
    • Analyse, interpret, simulate complex environmental problems to understand causes, effects and solutions
    • Communication to stakeholders.
    • One key research topic: ecosystem services and biodiversity
  • PBL – Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
    • Prime institute to support Dutch government
    • Conducting outlook studies, analyses & evaluations for environmental policy, using an integrated approach
  • Two senior staff + PhD student and Msc students


  • Vulnerable food production systems on land and at sea to climate change.
  • Hotspots of biodiversity
  • Threats from human activities such as urbanization, agriculture activities and climate change.
  • New policy concept of “nature-inclusive”, “circular” farming;
  • Similar policy goals are set for fisheries under the European Union’s Common Fisheries Policies.

Aim of the Dutch Case Study

  • Develop integrated scenarios for the FCB nexus
  • Explore nexus-informed pathways towards circular and “nature inclusive” food systems;
  • The Netherlands and Western Europe.

General Approach

  • Review, harmonize and build upon existing scenario studies and outlooks on the environment, nature and food production sectors;
  • Stakeholder consultation and participation;
  • National and European scales;
  • Consequences and trade-offs.

  1. Construct integrated environmental scenarios for NL;
  2. Inventory of models and data, and selection of appropriate models;
  3. Construct pathways towards ‘nature-inclusive’ climate smart, healthy food-systems;
  4. Analyse levers and barriers to achieve a natureinclusive society;
  5. Towards the synthesis – integration / linkage to other case studies.


  • Representation of plausible futures of ‘nature-inclusive’ food systems;
  • Guidance to policy-makers and stakeholders on socioeconomic and/or policy transitions;
  • Application of the nexus approach to solve FCB challenges in well-developed economies.


  • Synthesis of existing scenarios for nature inclusive food systems (year 2);
  • Inventory of existing models and data and discussion of their applicability and needed adjustments (year 1);
  • Portfolio of plausible pathways and associated trade-offs (year 4);
  • Guidelines to transition towards ‘nature-inclusive’ food systems, for policy-makers and stakeholders based on the shared visions (year 5)


Rob Alkemade

Wageningen University

Solen Le Clec’h

Wageningen University