The proposed Partnership is transdisciplinary, and uses a nexus approach to identify transition and transformation pathways towards ‘desirable’ futures where FCB challenges can be met simultaneously (Figure 1). The nexus approach is ‘multicentric’, explicitly recognises the inherent interconnectedness and interdependence of the systems being studied, and is applied to resolve complex resource and development issues situated at the intersection of natural and human systems. The nexus approach highlights the interactions between human (e.g., economic, social) and natural (e.g., hydrologic, atmospheric, biological) systems. The Partnership takes a systems perspective to uncover co-benefits, examine trade-offs and other unexpected consequences in solving FCB challenges, and achieve sustainable development outcomes across coupled human-natural systems (Figure 1).
Figure. 1. Conceptual diagram illustrating the food-biodiversity-climate nexus on ocean and land: (A) Example of synergistic effects and feedbacks; (B) Examples of trade-offs and antagonistic feedbacks.
Conceptual diagram illustrating the food-biodiversity-climate nexus on ocean and land: (A) Example of synergistic effects and feedbacks; (B) Examples of trade-offs and antagonistic feedbacks.3 A transdisciplinary approach is essential to find solutions for FCB challenges, by bringing together researchers, knowledge-holders, stakeholders and rights-holders to co-develop knowledge and policy options. Specifically, this Partnership facilitates collaboration between scholars from anthropology, economics, resource management, public policy, climate sciences, ecology, fisheries, and agriculture and nutritional science to work closely with practitioners with established links to policymakers, to answer questions that can support FCB actions. Our approach involves understanding the linkages between human and natural systems, exploring the consequences of scenario drivers and FCB policies affecting the systems, and incorporating the information into policy discussion. FCB challenges are complex and interconnected, and solving them requires bridging diverse sources of experience and knowledge. Policy-makers are facing ever more complex decisions and are requiring different kinds of information to navigate this environment, leading to widespread calls for a more integrated, contextualized and goal-seeking evaluation of different policies, geared for multi-scale decisions and action. This necessitates a shift in demand for knowledge beyond the assessment of current trends (what is happening), towards the need to explore and identify the transformations required to achieve more sustainable futures (how to change).